Generals Marcus Antonius Primus and Gnaeus Julius Agricola were both born in Gaul, as were emperors Claudius and Caracalla. Lugdunum seems to have had a population of several thousand at the time Roman foundation. The 2nd century ended with another struggle for imperial succession. The cities had streets, buildings, aqueducts and amphitheatres. The altar, with its distinctive vertical end poles, was engraved with the names of 60 Gallic tribes, and was featured prominently on coins from the Lugdunum mint for many years. The sack resulted in a power vacuum. , Rome acquired a Gallic province across the Alps. The enormous dome over the center of the cathedral, which was converted into a mosque by the Ottomans, shows its Christian heritage. It served as the capital of the Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis and was an important city in the western half of the Roman Empire for centuries. His request was granted and an engraved bronze plaque of the speech (the Claudian Tables) was erected in Lugdunum. ), Celtic and other languages in ancient Europe (2008), pp. The Last of the Roman Empire The Hagia Sophia began as a Christian church, constructed under the rule of Justinian I. Suetonius reported Caligula's visit to Lugdunum in 39-40 AD at the beginning of his third consulate as characteristic of his reign. Beneath the surface of Lyon, France’s second city and gastronomical capital, lies ancient Lugdunum , the eventual capital of Gaul and birthplace of the Roman Emperor Claudius. In AD 357-8, Julian II (fig.3), then serving as consul and general commanding Gallic Legions, moved the Roman capital of Gaul from Trier to Paris, which he defended against Germanic invaders coming from the north, down the road from Senlis. Two emperors, Claudius and Caracalla, were born in Lugdunum. Many of the wealthy merchants and craftsmen were freedmen. The appearance of Germanic given and family names becomes noticeable in Gallia/Francia from the middle of the 7th century on, most notably in powerful families, indicating that the centre of gravity had definitely shifted. . A small force from Vienne briefly besieged Lugdunum, but withdrew when Vindex was defeated by the Rhine legions a few weeks later at Vesontio. The Lyonnais company of boatmen (nautae) was the largest and "most honored" in Gaul. , Another early medieval folk-etymology of the name, found in gloss on the Latin poet Juvenal, connects the element Lugu- to the Latin word for "light", lux (luci- in compounds) and translates the name as "Shining Hill" (lucidus mons).. For example, the Gaulish tunic—which gave Emperor Caracalla his surname—had not been replaced by Roman fashion. The Gauls had become a menace to the ancient Greek colony of Massalia (Latin Massilia, now … They arrived at friendly Lugdunum, where they were persuaded by the Lyonnais to punish nearby Vienne. When Vercingetorix united the Gauls, not many had joined him and hence he adopted a policy of scorched earth and hiding behind natural fortifications. In the 4th and 5th centuries, the Franks settled in northern France and Belgium, the Alemanni in Alsace and Switzerland, and the Burgundians in Savoie. By the end of the reign of Augustus, Strabo described Lugdunum as the junction of four major roads (the Via Agrippa): south to Narbonensis, Massilia and Italy, north to the Rhine river and Germany, northwest to the sea (the English Channel), and west to Aquitania. Traditional Gallic gods like mallet-bearing Sucellus and the mother goddesses called the Matres (depicted with cornucopiae) continued to be worshiped somewhat syncretistically along with the Roman gods. There was trade with Campania for ceramics and wine, and use of some Italic-style home furnishings before the Roman conquest. The Roman city was founded as Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods. It is also important to note that we are not exactly sure the extent to which the Roman conquests effected the demographics of Gaul. Spectacles were staged at the amphitheater to honor and entertain him and his guest, Ptolemy, king of Mauretania (whom Caligula later had murdered). The prosperity of Mediterranean Gaul encouraged Rome to respond to pleas for assistance from the inhabitants of Massilia, who were under attack by a coalition of Ligures and Gauls. This page was last edited on 1 July 2020, at 10:44. Plan of Lugdunum, which became the capital of Roman Gaul. Gold Stater, around 100-50 BCE J.-C., 7.43g. Today, the pieces of the huge plaque are the pride of the Gallo-Roman Museum in Lyon. Caligula's visit in 39–40 was longer, stranger, and better documented by Suetonius. Within 50 years Lugdunum increased greatly in size and importance, becoming the administrative centre of Roman Gaul and Germany. This extension of the name is derived from its settlers of the 4th and 3d cent.  They spoke the now extinct British language, which evolved into the Breton, Cornish, and Welsh languages. By 19 AD at least one temple, and the first amphitheater in Gaul (now known as the Amphithéâtre des Trois-Gaules) had been built on the slopes of the Croix-Rousse hill. The new town, Augustodunum, flourished and is today Autun. The Huns, united by Attila, became a greater threat, and Aëtius used the Visigoths against the Huns. Still, this was only a small part of Gaul, which consisted of today’s France, Belgium, parts of Holand and Switzerland. The Vandals moved into Spain, and then in 429 AD, crossed over the Strait of Gibraltar and overran North Africa, traveling steadily along the coast until they captured Carthage in 439 AD. Dio Cassius says this was to keep them from joining Mark Antony and bringing their armies into the developing conflict. The Goths founded kingdoms in parts of Gaul and invaded Spain, while the Franks and Burgundians also settled in Gaul. The capital of Gaul was the ancient Lugdunum (modern Lyon). It is unknown who commissioned the Via Aquitania, but it is likely that Domitius Ahenobarbus built it in order to easily exact tributes from the newly conquered tribes.RouteThe Via Aquitania was the main Roman road in the province of Aquitania. Meanwhile, Vitellius arrived in Lugdunum, where, according to Tacitus, he formally declared himself Imperator, punished unreliable soldiers, and celebrated with feasts, and with games in the amphitheater. The mint was retained at Lugdunum, as was an administrative tax office and a state-run wool clothing factory. Roman Gaul (Routledge Revivals): The Three Provinces, 58 BC-AD 260.  Epigraphic evidence suggests Munatius Plancus was the principal founder of Lugdunum. A major shrine of the Phrygian goddess Cybele was built in nearby Vienne, and she also seems to have found special favor in Lugdunum in the late 1st century and 2nd century. There, he had himself proclaimed Augustus and made plans to counter Severus. Dear Friends of Roman Catholic, On behalf of the entire Mission Advancement Team, I hope this message finds you and your family well. Despite a lack of imperial visits for most of the next century, Lugdunum prospered, until Septimius Severus and the Battle of Lugdunum (see below) brought devastation in 197 AD. The Roman general Julius Caesar pushed his army into Gaul in 58 BC.  They were able to retain Narbonensis and Provence after the timely arrival of an Ostrogoth detachment sent by Theodoric the Great. Perhaps to promote a policy of conciliation and integration, all the notable men of the three parts of Gaul were invited. Thus the Romans built a crossroads that made Narbonne an optimal trading centre, and a major trading competitor to Massilia. The Romans intervened in Gaul in 125 BC, and by 121 BC they had conquered the Mediterranean region called Provincia (later named Gallia Narbonensis ). During the Middle Ages, Lugdunum was transformed to Lyon by natural sound change. The first Roman site I visited in southern France was the city of Nimes known as Nemausus in Roman times, after a local sacred spring located there. Map of the Battle of Pharsalus, 48 BC. Caesar said that the Belgae were separated from the Celtic Gauls to their south by "language, custom and laws" (lingua, institutis, legibus) but he did not go into detail, except to mention that he learnt from his contacts that the Belgae had some ancestry … The Rhône and Saône rivers were navigable, as were most of the rivers of Gaul, and river traffic was heavy. The imperial mint established a branch in 15 BC, during the reign of Augustus, and produced coinage for the next three centuries (see picture). Nero committed suicide in June and Galba was proclaimed emperor. The Altar of the Three Gauls was erected at Condate, in the top right-hand corner. It served as the capital of the Roman province Gallia Lugdunensis. The aqueduct of the Monts d'Or, completed around 20BC, was the first of at least four aqueducts supplying water to the city. "Spain: The Visigothic Kingdom". Cities like Augusta Treverorum (Trier) eclipsed Lugdunum in importance. The name distinguished it from Cisalpine Gaul on the near side of the Alps to Rome. Lyon: ancient capital of Roman Gaul in France 81 Views Lyon is an important city in France, located at the confluence of the Saone with the Rhone, between the Massif Central and the Alps. was the new capital of the district, the first Roman municipinm on the soil of Gaul. The country was divided into four provinces: Narbonensis, Aquitania to the west and south of the Loire, Celtica (or Lugdunensis) in central France between the Loire and … Two of the rivals, Clodius Albinus and Septimius Severus, initially formed a political alliance. Clodius Albinus had settled with his army near Lugdunum early in 195. Page 1 of 3. the Aedui) he managed to conquer nearly all of Gaul. Retrieved 17 September 2019.  Four aqueducts brought water to the city's fountains, public baths, and wealthy homes. In 177 it also became the first in Gaul to suffer persecution and martyrdom. The new provinces were grouped in larger administrative districts. In 121 B.C. Other evidence suggests other cities surpassed Lugdunum as trading centers. A former religious centre of Gallic society, Lugdunum (Lyon) became the capital of Roman Gaul. This latter status was the highest distinction to which a wealthy freedman could aspire. The Roman Republic began its takeover of Celtic Gaul in 121 BC, when it conquered and annexed the southern reaches of the area. For other uses, see, Pre-Roman settlements and the area before the founding of the city, Growth and prosperity in the first centuries of the Empire. The city became increasingly referred to as Lugdunum (and occasionally Lugudunum) by the end of the 1st century AD. With the help of various Gallic clans (e.g. Gaules (Paris, I953), 7: 'Le site de Lyon convenait ai une capitale'; A. L. F. Rivet, Oxford Classi-cal Dict.2 (1970), s.v. Claudius and Nero also contributed to the city's importance and growth. The capital was Trier which was often used as the northern capital of the Roman Empire by many emperors. Gallo-Roman Museum: The Capital of Gaul is here to see - See 909 traveler reviews, 433 candid photos, and great deals for Lyon, France, at Tripadvisor. The area became a Roman province in 121 BC originally under the name Gallia Transalpina (Transalpine Gaul). After two days of siege, the Celts broke the defences of the temple and everyone inside was killed. Roman Gaul was a great success. Mathieu Poux, Hugues Savay-Guerraz, Lyon avant Lugdunum, Infolio éditions, 2003, 151 p. (, Travel Lyon, France: Illustrated Guide, Phrasebook & Maps, The Roman Remains of Northern and Eastern France: A Guidebook, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lugdunum&oldid=965445950, Roman fortifications in Gallia Lugdunensis, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2017, Articles needing translation from French Wikipedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The craftsmen of Gaul used the gold to create elegant and practical works. In this new province the Romans founded the town of Narbonne in 118 BC. The cosmopolitan hospitality to eastern religions may have allowed the first attested Christian community in Gaul to be established in Lugdunum in the 2nd century, led by a bishop Pothinus (fr:Pothin de Lyon)—who probably was Greek. Gallia, ancient designation for the land S and W of the Rhine, W of the Alps, and N of the Pyrenees. Under his control, the Lugdunum mint issued coins celebrating his "clemency", as well as one dedicated to the "Genius of Lugdunum." They maintained numerous gold mines (which certainly drew Caesar’s attention), and the wealth was such that, following Caesar’s intervention, the price of gold dropped because so much was looted from Gaul. In 10 BC his son Claudius (the future emperor) was born there. The city was plundered or at least severely damaged by the battle. All the while the Roman wars leave Gaul in relative peace as the country heals. Agrippa, Drusus, Tiberius, and Germanicus (born himself in Lugdunum) were among the gubernatorial generals who served in Lugdunum. Lugdunum became the capital of a much smaller region containing only two cities besides Lugdunum: Autun and Langres. Under Caesar in the mid-first century B.C. The social classes of the time consisted of the decurions at the top, who could aspire to Senate status, followed by the knights (equites), and the Augustales, six of whom were in charge of the municipal imperial cult. The capital of Gaul was the ancient Lugdunum (modern Lyon). It was colonized by veterans of the Roman legions who had served Julius … Drinkwater, John (2014). Nimes became part of the Roman Empire sometime before 28 BCE. The "council of the three Gauls" continued to be held annually for nearly three centuries, even after Gaul was divided into provinces. Their ashes were thrown into the Rhône. Albinus retreated with his forces toward Lugdunum. It became the province of Cisalpine Gaul, with its capital at Mediolanum (Milan), and it was divided into Cispadane Gaul and Transpadane Gaul. It was built on the site of the old Greek state of Byzantium on the shores of the Propontis in AD 330 by the then ruler Constantine. However, certain aspects of the ancient Celtic culture continued after the fall of Roman administration and the Domain of Soissons, a remnant of the Empire, survived from 457 to 486. There was trade with Campania for ceramics and wine, and use of some Italic-style home furnishings before the Roman conquest. It also acted as a gateway between the Mediterranean and the Euxine (Black) seas. The Celtic god Lugus was apparently popular in Ireland and Britain as is found in medieval Irish literature as Lug(h) and in medieval Welsh literature as Lleu (also spelled Llew). Capital of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, it is the second largest urban area of the country by population after Paris. To the north, Angles, Saxons, and Jutes raided Britain. After the conquest of Gaul by Caesar and its reorganization by Augustus in 22 BC, the Province was renamed Narbonese (Narbonne being its capital), and three different areas under Roman … designated capital of "Three Gauls" - role as Gallo-Roman unity was endorsed by construction of Altar of Rome and Augustus at meeting point of rivers Rhone and Saone. Before 22 BC Gaul had three geographical divisions, one of which was divided into multiple Roman provinces: Archeological evidence shows Lugdunum was a pre-Gallic settlement as far back as the neolithic era, and a Gallic settlement with continuous occupation from the 4th century BC. In accord with Roman tradition, as protectors the Visigoths had the right to possess from one-third to two-thirds of the land or the produce from those lands. Roman Gaul War Stock Photos and Images (267) Narrow your search: Vectors | Black & white | Cut Outs. In another turnabout for Lugdunum, Galba's policies were immediately unpopular, and in January, 69 AD, the Rhine legions quickly threw their support to Vitellius as emperor. - representatives of three gauls held annual conference here to discuss judicial and administrative affairs and formulate grievances to be past on to Rome & public worship Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern Lyon, France) was an important Roman city in Gaul, established on the current site of Lyon. Their seat of government was usually Augusta Treverorum (now Trier, Germany), the former civitas-capital of the Treveri and capital of Belgica, now “the Rome of the West.” (An interesting exception to the rule was Julian, who, with Trier rendered inhospitable by war, wintered in Paris, giving Main article: Gallo-Roman religion. He first used the Huns against the Burgundians, and these mercenaries destroyed Worms, killed king Gunther, and pushed the Burgundians westward. Aetius defended northern Gaul against the Salian Franks. Its large and cosmopolitan population made it the commercial and financial heart of the northwestern provinces as well. Each had its own capital. '2 The armies fought an initial, inconclusive engagement at Tinurtium (Tournus), about 60 km up the Saône from Lugdunum. Additional religious cults came with the oriental immigrants, who brought the eastern mystery religions to the Rhône valley. The prohibition of Druids and the syncretic nature of the Roman religion led to disappearance of the Celtic religion. The Lyonnais admiration of Nero was not universally shared; tyranny, extravagance, and negligence fostered resentment, and coups were planned. "Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in the Roman Empire, in modern-day France, southern Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, western Switzerland and western Germany. According to Pseudo-Plutarch, Lugdunum takes its name from an otherwise unattested Gaulish word lugos, that he says means "raven" (κόρακα), and the Gaulish word for an eminence or high ground (τοπον έξέχοντα), dunon. In reciprocal appreciation, Nero contributed the same amount to the rebuilding of Lugdunum after a similarly devastating fire a few years later. It … Vienne quickly laid down weapons and paid a "ransom" to forestall plundering.  The last pockets of Gaulish speakers appear to have lingered until the 6th or 7th century. Historical and archeological evidence indicates that Lugdunum never fully recovered from the devastation of this battle. Current historical research suggests that Roman Gaul was "Roman" only in certain (albeit major) social contexts, the prominence of which in material culture has hindered a better historical understanding of the permanence of many Celtic elements. There is no record of a cause or a triggering event but mob violence against the Christians in the streets culminated in a public interrogation in the forum by the tribune and town magistrates. By the mid-2nd century BC, Rome was trading heavily with the Greek colony of Massilia (modern Marseille) and entered into an alliance with them, by which it agreed to protect the town from local Gauls, including the nearby Aquitani and from sea-borne Carthaginians and other rivals, in exchange for land that it wanted in order to build a road to Hispania, to assist in troop movements to its provinces there. Lyonnais terra cotta, pottery and wine were traded throughout Gaul, and many other items were crafted for export. In our last episode, Gaul was in ruins after roughly a decade of brutal war. Archeological evidence shows Lugdunum was a pre-Gallic settlement as far back as the neolithic era, and a Gallic settlement with continuous occupation from the 4th century BC. Source: Ancient Eu Despite the fact that under the Romans, Gaul received for the first time a formal political and administrative unity, economic and social differences between its regions remained. provinciae) was the basic, and until the Tetrarchy (circa 296), largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside of the Italian peninsula. Nevertheless, the Christian community either survived or was reconstituted, and under Bishop Irenaeus it continued to grow in size and influence. From its conquest in 50 BC to 314 AD Gallia was divided into three Roman provinces. In March 68 AD, a Romanized Aquitainian named Caius Julius Vindex, who was governor of Gallia Lugdunensis led an uprising intended to replace Nero with Galba, a Roman governor of Spain. The city itself was run by a "senate" of decurions (the ordo decurionum) and a hierarchy of magistrates: quaestors, aediles, and duumvirs. In 22 BC, imperial administration of Gaul was reorganised establishing the provinces of Gallia Aquitania, Gallia Belgica and Gallia Lugdunensis. As the Western Empire disintegrated in the 5th century, Lugdunum became the principal city of the Burgundian kingdom. But soon Caesar began to impose Roman laws into that land, which insulted the Gallic tribes. Parts of eastern Gaul were incorporated into the provinces Raetia (15 BC) and Germania Superior (AD 83). They also built the Via Aquitania, which led toward the Atlantic through Tolosa (Toulouse) and Burdigala (Bordeaux). In 57 BC, Julius Caesar led the conquest of northern Gaul, and already specified that the part to the north of the Seine and Marne rivers was inhabited by a people or alliance known as the Belgae. Its depth and swampy valley had been an obstacle to travel and communication to the east. B.C.—invading Celts, who were called Gauls by the Romans. Hispania finally fell from the Roman Empire with the great Germanic migrations of the 4th and 5th centuries AD. In 286/7 Carausius commander of the Classis Britannica, the fleet of the English Channel, declared himself Emperor of Britain and northern Gaul. Roman Empire (Gaul Rising) Edit. This definition became the basis of the later Roman province of Belgica. Until the middle of the I century B.C.E the Romans only had possession of Gallia Cisallpina and had only a foothold in Gallia Transalpina. Dio Cassius described 300,000 men involved in the battle: although this was one of the largest battles involving Roman armies known, this number is assumed to be an exaggeration. Roman Gaul consisted of an area of provincial rule in the Roman Empire, in modern day France, Belgium, Luxembourg, and western Germany.Roman control of the area lasted for more than 500 years. 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